Masdevallia orchids are commonly referred to as “Kite Orchids” because of their blooms that are almost triangular-shaped and have what looks like kite-tails coming off of each sepal.Name came after the Spanish doctor and botanist Dr. Jose MASDEVALL. The Masdevallia come from the mountain areas in South and Central America.

Flower spikes can grow to be only a few inches to more than a foot in length and each produces only one bloom. Masdevallia orchid’s blooms come in many different colors ranging from pale to almost neon as well as many different patterns such as spotted or striped.

Masdevallia kimballiana                    Masdevallia Bellavallia

Water Requirements

Masdevallia orchids should be watered frequently because they do not have pseudobulbs for water storage and they tend to dry out fairly quickly. You want to make sure to not let your Masdevallia orchid dry out completely but at the same time be sure not to overwater either.Recommend to cultivate them in sphagnum moss which stays humid for a long time without making the roots rot. The plants should not have wet feet. The quality of the water is very important.recommend rain water or any water that contains little amounts of salt.

Light Requirements

Masdevallias need low to medium light intensity in order to thrive. If your Masdevallia orchid is receiving too much light, it will cause the leaves to turn yellow in color, and too little light will cause the leaves to become a very dark green color and the leaves will become elongated. The best place to grow your Masdevallia orchid indoors is on a shaded windowsill, out of direct sunlight. If you only have a brightly lit windowsill, you might be best putting your Masdevallia in the middle of the room away from the bright light.

Temperature Requirements

Able to tolerate higher temperatures if the humidity evens out the heat. You can use humidity trays or spray regularly every morning and evening.

Temperature requirements for Masdevallia orchids are in the cool to intermediate range. ideal daytime temperatures to grow your Masdevallia orchid is between 16°C to 23°C and night temperatures are between 12.8°C to 15.6°C. A 10° to 15° difference between day and night temperatures is ideal, especially during the hot summer months. If your Masdevallia orchid becomes too hot, this could slow down its growth and ultimately kill your orchid.

Humidity Requirements

Masdevallia orchids require very high humidity levels. The higher the temperature is the higher the humidity should be. A level of 60-80 percent is recommended.

Fertilizer Requirements

Masdevallia orchids should be fertilized with a diluted solution once a week when the orchid is in active growth. When the orchid is not in active growth, fertilizing one time a month is sufficient.

Potting Requirements

Masdevallias should be repotted once every year or two or once the potting medium no longer drains properly or the plant outgrows its pot. You will want to repot after the orchids flowers have bloomed which is typically in the winter or early spring. Masdevallia orchids have fine roots so fine-grade potting media is recommended such as fir bark or tree fern fiber. After repotting your Masdevallia you should maintain a high humidity level in your orchids growing area and also keep the medium a little on the drier side until you see new roots beginning to form.


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Orchid plants in orchid nurseries

These shows how the orchid plants will be when buy from orchid nurseries.

Mounted On wood

With Hanging pot

On pot with Orchid Medium

On pot with soil as orchid medium ( ground orchids)


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Malleola baliensis


Malleola is a genus of flowering plants from the orchid family. It has about 30 species, native to Southeast Asia, China, New Guinea and Melanesia

Malleola baliensis

Malleola baliensis is included in the genus Malleola

Light and Temperature

particularly easy cultivation that can bloom several times during the year, requires high brightness, but not direct sun, medium-high temperatures, 22-30 ° C, and high humidity, 70-85% , with a good and constant ventilation.


The watering must be regular, leaving it partially dry before giving water again,


fertilizer alternated with the waterings to avoid accumulation of salts at the roots,


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Aerangis( Aergs)

A genus of the Orchid family The name of this genus has been derived from the Greek words ‘aer’ (air) and ‘angos’ (urn). Approximately 50 species in this genus are known mostly from tropical Africa, but also from the Comoro Islands, Madagascar and Sri Lanka.

Currently the Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families recognizes 51 species, 2 natural hybrids, and 4 varieties. it distributed Africa and its adjacent islands, including Madagascar.

Aerangis’ descendants from intergeneric hybridization have been registered.

It is not difficult to grow any of the species of Aerangis, but the plants are easily lost if growing conditions change adversely. The species from higher elevations need cooler conditions than those that occur at or near sea level, and those from near the Equator generally require warmer conditions and higher humidity than those that are found much further south at the same elevation. Details of the habitat, where known, often give an indication of the best way to manage the environment for plants in cultivation.

Aerangis biloba

This small sized, hot to warm growing, epiphytic species is from tropical western and central Africa in forests, woodland and thickets, as well as on cultivated crops such as coffee and cocoa to elevations of 700 meters with short to 8″ long stems

Aerangis biloba is a species of epiphytic orchid.It is native to tropical West Africa (Benin, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Togo, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Gabon).

Aerangis biloba comes from Western Africa (Senegal east to Cameroon). It grows as an epiphyte in woodland thickets, forest canopies, village trees and often found in plantation crops. It can be found at sea level to about 2,300 feet (700 meters).
The stem of A. biloba can reach up to 8 inches (20cm) and is woody. Its leaves are a dark green when the plant is younger and eventually develop black dots as the plant matures (there can be a small amount of black dots on younger plants). Leaves are usually about 6 1/2 inches long (18cm) and will be 1 1/8 (3cm) to 2 1/4 (6cm) wide. The leaves are bilobed at the ends with a slight sinus between the ends.
Inflorescence’s are pendent and will vary in length, 4 – 16 inches (10 – 40cm) long. They will produce 8 – 20 flowers that alternate down the length of the inflorescence. They are white and often have a pink or brown tint in the pedicel and the spur which is about 2 inches (5 – 6cm) long.

The Two-lobed Aerangis blooms in the spring and summer

Light:- Plants in cultivation need well-shaded conditions, similar to those enjoyed by Phalaenopsis species and hybrids. The level of light should be quite low and the light should be filtered or dispersed. Plants should not be exposed to direct sunlight, especially at noon. Strong air movement should be ensured all the time.

Temperature:- This species is a thermophilic plant. The average day temperature during the whole year is 26-31 ° C, night 17-20 ° C, which gives a daily amplitude of 7-12 ° C.

Humidity:-  Plants needs a humidity level of 80-85% from late spring to autumn, and falling to 70-75% during the winter and early spring. It is easily dehydrated so you will need to pay close attention to the moisture factor. If the plants are kept too dry, there is the danger that they will dry out too much and lose their leaves. If they are sprayed with too much cold water or too frequently, the plants will suffer, lose their leaves and die. Careful management of both the plants and their environment is the key to long-lived plants and the reward of many flowers every year.

Potting:- All of the plants will grow well in pots of medium suitable for most other epiphytes; those with finer roots need a smaller particle size and moister conditions than those with thicker roots. All species grow well as mounted plants, firmly attached to a piece of bark or cork. Mounted plants should be suspended in deep shade, usually in high humidity. The flowers are naturally and elegantly displayed when the plants are grown like this.

Watering:- The Two-lobed Aerangis should be watered frequently during periods of intensive growth, but the outflow of water must be facilitated and the substrate around the roots should always be loose, with easy access of air.

Fertilizer:- Plants need only weak liquid fertilizer, during the growing season when new roots and new leaves are produced.. Before fertilizing the plant it is necessary to wet it: in this way the roots are not burned by the fertilizer.

Rest period:- In winter, watering should be reduced to a certain extent, especially in the case of plants cultivated in darker conditions of a short day typical of higher latitudes, but they should not be completely deprived of water. Fertilization should be reduced or eliminated until new growths appear in the spring and more abundant watering starts.

source :-

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Novelty phalaenopsis

What is a novelty phalaenopsis?

For hybridisation if not used large or slandered phalaenopsis then we call it as
novelty phalaenopsis.

novelty phalaenopsis hybrids are primarily inter specific hybrids of similarly sized species and hybrids. These plants are produced primarily for the hobbyist and orchid breeder markets. They lack the larger flower size and elegant erect-arching inflorescence of standard hybrids.”

Emphasis on novelty, which includes flowers that are fragrant, waxy, and multi colour.


1) Phal Pylo’s Sweet Orange
2) Phal Princess Kaiulani Chin Yo

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Orchid Flower colour changes

Colour changes are usually attributable to temperature but can also be from changes in light as well. Temperature can affect on flower colour. Flowers that were red in previous years were faded in this year

Look at the leaves on your two photos.the leaves in the right photo appear to be a much deeper green than the left one. To me that would suggest the plant received a good deal less light last year, thus the darker more vibrant bloom colour. The more light this year probably washed out some of the colour.


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Ludisia discolor (jewel Orchids)

Ludisia discolor with out Flower and with flower

Ludisia is a genus of orchids that contains just one species, Ludisia discolor, commonly referred to as jewel orchid. They are terrestrial orchids. in their natural setting would be found growing on the forest floor. They are known for their foliage, which is often velvety deep maroon with red veins that run parallel to the centre of the’s prized for its foliage rather than its flowers.

If you thought growing orchids was all about the flowers, you’ve never taken a look at the Ludisia, or jewel orchid. This unusual orchid variety breaks all the rules: it grows in the soil, not in the air; it likes shade instead of a sunny environment; and it gets its good looks from the velvety leaves it produces instead of its flowers.

It’s simple and easy to care for and does still produce lovely white little flowers to give it a little more interest than other houseplants which are only grown for their foliage. Flowers are white with twisting yellow columns. Individual flowers are small but grow in clusters on upright stalks. Flowers in cultivation last a month or more.

They need high humidity and warm temperatures with low to medium light, and they tolerate extremely low light levels.


Out in it’s natural habitat the Jewel Orchid is found growing down low, often in pretty shady places. For the best results try to replicate this in your home or office by avoiding placing it in direct sunlight. North facing rooms are perfect, but any other facing aspect is fine providing you can shield the leaves from any harsh sunlight that filters through during the day. Do not mistake this as a plant which likes darkness though, gloom needs to be avoided as much as direct sunlight.


Slightly damp conditions are what the Jewel Orchid wants for the majority of the time. It does not like to have bone dry or soaking wet soil, leave its roots sitting in water and it will rapidly die. If you are using a more porous potting mix you will need to water more often than if using standard potting soil.


Warm tropical temperatures above fifty degrees. Obviously, jewel orchids are not tolerant to frost.


A good orchid potting mix should be fine, ideally one that contains some organic material. Make sure the drainage is good to avoid rotting their roots.


These plants should regularly be fed with a balanced, diluted fertiliser like a 20-20-20. If their blooms are insufficient, up their feeding.

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Terrariums are decorative gardens that are grown in saleable glass containers that provide just enough of an opening for the gardener to access their plants. Terrariums can also be grown in open glass containers.

In many ways, a terrarium is like an aquarium, except instead of fish, they are used to house and grow plants.

Because the plants are grown in glass containers, terrariums are often considered self-sustaining small gardens.They are a small, enclosed environment for certain plants. Think of it as a mini-greenhouse. The containers for terrarium gardens are typically transparent, such as glass or plastic.

There are mainly two types of terrariums, closed and open. closed terrariums have a removable lid while the open terrarium does not.

Closed Terrariums

They are indoor gardens in a sealed container. The plants and the soil in the terrarium release water vapour essentially recycling water. The vapour is then collected onto the walls of the vessel and trickles down to the soil. Terrariums are self-nourishing, which is why they require little maintenance, if sealed. Tropical plant varieties, such as mosses, orchids, ferns, and air plants, are generally kept within closed terrarium due to the conditions being similar to the humid and sheltered environment of the tropics.


Ferns terrariums


Ferns- Lots of ferns thrive in moist and humid terrariums, which means they should be in a closed terrarium. With some ferns, they need to be trimmed because of how high that can grow. So, if you have a small terrarium, make sure to get a low growing fern.

Moss Terrariums


Open  terrarium

Open terrarium are better suited to dry plants such as succulents. Not all plants require or are suited to the moist environment of closed terrarium. For plants adapted to dry climates, open, unsealed terrariums are used to keep the air in the terrarium free from excess moisture. Open terrarium also work well for plants that require more direct sunlight, as closed terrarium can trap too much heat potentially killing any plants inside.


Cacti terrariums

cact-cacti Terrarium
Cacti terrariums love dry surroundings, so it’s best that this type of terrarium have a constant air flow.

Carnivorous terrariums


Carnivorous terrariums prefer bright light and easy access to food so its best to have an open mouth glass container. Most carnivorous plants need moisture and humidity. If the plants are well fed and taken care of they could bloom.



Most types of succulents like to grow in a dry habitat, so that the soil doesn’t get to moist. Also, succulents shouldn’t be watered a lot, only once every week or two. Succulents and cacti would pair together well, since they have the same needs. There are many more different plants that can be used in a terrarium. The tricky part to building a good terrarium, is to find plants that have the same survival needs. It may take a lot of plants to die before getting the combinations right.

Orchid Terrariums


There are many species of orchid plants that can be used in an your terrarium. it can be either open or closed. Some of the best and most preferable types of orchid plants for terrariums are

Phalaenopsis or moth orchids
Vanda orchid or Singapore orchid
Slipper orchids
Cattelya orchids


  1. How do you make terrariums?

1.Buy a special terrarium case to hold your garden or make one of your own out of a soda bottle, fish tank, fish bowl or vase.

2.Then fill the bottom of your container with half the amount of the layer of soil you plan to use. You may lay rocks as your first layer in the terrarium, but this up to personal preference.

3.Add any large rocks or pieces of driftwood that you would like to include in your garden.

4.In the soil, make a hole big enough for the roots of the plants to rest.

5.Remove the plant from its container you may need to lightly massage the roots to loosen the roots from the soil.

6.Position the plants in the thin layer of soil and add the second layer of soil around the plants. Press somewhat firmly the new soil level should be about the same level as the soil of the plants original root ball.

7.Get creative and mix up the plants, colours and sizes.

2)  What plants work best in terrariums?

Typically, foliage plants and plants that grow slowly work best avoid fast growing plants. example for slow growth are

1.Ferns Maidenhair, Birds nest, Button ferns

2.Carnivorous plants, Venus fly traps, Pitcher plants, Sundew plants

3.Dwarf palms

4.Airplants, Tillandsia

5.Succulents- cacti, Hawthornia, Echeveria, Crassula, etc.


Ferns, carnivorous plants and air plants are quite difficult to grow without terrariums. So, if you would like these plants in your home, we recommend purchasing or making a terrarium.

3) What are the benefits of terrariums?

1.They help grow plants that would be difficult to grow in dry air.

2.They provide a confined space for a garden and mini garden.

4.You can use artificial light, such as LED or fluorescent very efficiently.

5.Terrariums don’t need to be watered often.

4) How do you care for terrariums?

Terrariums are low maintenance for the most part but we do have some suggestions to keep your terrarium long lasting and healthy.

1.If you choose to grow ferns, trim leaves to prevent them from overgrowing.

2.Make sure to remove yellow and brown leaves from any plants in your terrarium. This is typically a sign of disease or pest.

3.If you have an open terrarium, monitor for pests such as gnats or mealy bugs.

4.If you have closed terrarium, you may want to remove the lid every now and then to let in some fresh air.

5) How to water Terrariums ?

The types of plants found in terrariums tend to be hardy plants that don’t require frequent watering. Also, the greenhouse-like structure of terrariums recycles water instead of evaporating water into the ambient air with normal indoor plants.If closed, you might be watering them (on average) once a month but this will vary depending on a variety of factors. Open terrariums benefit from being watered every 3-6 weeks. Rather than watering on a schedule, check the soil to see if and how much water your plants need.

6) What type of soil works best in terrariums?

Coco coir, peat moss or houseplant soil works with most plants, besides succulents which prefer a well-drained inorganic medium. Some people choose to make their own soil but if you’re short on time, garden store houseplant soil works just fine. For succulents, you’ll need soil with a sand or gravel mixture.

7) Do terrariums make good gifts?

Of course they do! Not only are they low maintenance, but they are a beautiful addition to any home, apartment or business.

8) Do terrariums smell?

In general, no. They actually smell quite nice with an earthy odour. But, if yours happens to smell rotten, its most likely a sign of root rotting or over watering

9) Can you plant trees in terrariums?

Bonsai trees or small junipers might work but that’s about it.

10) What are hanging terrariums?

They are simply terrariums that hang from a structure, like a wall sconce.

11) What is the difference between indoor plants and terrariums?

Indoor plants (houseplants) are typically used in terrariums. However, most plants chosen for terrariums are slow-growing and many are plants that are otherwise difficult to grow without high humidity or high light.

12) Do terrariums need air?

Yes, but plants in airtight, or closed terrariums, recycle air. During the day, sunlight promotes the growth of sugars during the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide into oxygen, releasing it into the terrarium.

In a closed terrarium, you may want to remove the lid to let fresh air into the terrarium, but a closed terrarium will not damage the plants.

13) Which kind of containers work best for terrariums?

Glass candy jars, fish tanks with light bulbs, goldfish bowls and coffee pots all work very well as terrarium containers. You might even choose to use a wine bottle, but planting would be difficult due to the narrow opening.

14) Do terrariums need sunlight?

Most need either direct or indirect light but artificial light may also be used. There are three types of light you can provide for your terrarium.

1.Direct sunlight

2.Indirect sunlight

3.Artificial light

It is recommended to use fluorescent or LED bulbs. Avoid incandescent bulbs.

If you choose to place your terrarium in direct sunlight, you may want to remove the lid on a closed terrarium because it might get too hot for the plants with the lid on.

15) Do terrariums need to be airtight?

Terrariums are fine if they are airtight, but we suggest removing the lid periodically (about once a week or even daily) to allow fresh air into your garden.

16) Can terrariums be made of plastic?

Sure! Plastic containers, like those made out of acrylic, work just fine. You can also buy anti-fog plastic containers, which prevent condensation build-up and allows better visibility these are generally more expensive.

17) How long do terrariums last?

Terrariums can last anywhere from several years or even longer, if well maintained.

18) Do terrariums need air?

Yes, but plants in airtight, or closed terrariums, recycle air. During the day, sunlight promotes the growth of sugars during the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide into oxygen, releasing it into the terrarium.

In a closed terrarium, you may want to remove the lid to let fresh air into the terrarium, but a closed terrarium will not damage the plants.

19) What supplies do you need to make a terrarium?

You all need the following:

1.A glass or plastic container

2.Rocks, if you choose

3.Moss, if you choose

4.Soil (growing medium)

5.Plants that won’t overgrow (generally miniature or dwarf plants)

6.Spoon for placing soil

7.Long tweezers for putting materials into vessel

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Orchids from seeds?!

orchid seeds

Most plant seeds (except orchids) are relatively large and contain a large store of nutrition to sustain the young plant before leaves and roots develop enough to continue sustaining the growing plant. With this type of seed, you just pop the seed in soil, water, and watch the seedling grow. Most garden plant seeds are of this type. Examples are beans, peas, corn, tomatoes and lettuce, all the seeds you see at your local nursery or produce store. Orchid seed, in comparison, is tiny, like dust. It contains virtually no nutrition to grow the new plant, so orchid seed relies on a mycorrhizal fungus to provide the nutrition required to grow. Until the young orchid grows leaves and roots large enough to support the orchid, the fungus must provide all the nutrition for the growing plant. Without this fungus, there is no possibility of the seed developing.

Now, back to how to grow your seed. If you just put your seed in a pot and water, it will not grow without the required fungus. Early orchid growers had little success growing orchids from seed due to this problem. They found to have any chance of success, the seed should be sown on the mother pot around the roots of the parent plant. Here, the potting media will be moist due to normal watering of the pot and will also contain suitable mycorrhizal fungus from the parent plant. Many species will grow using this method. Phaius, for example, grow extremely well using this method. A soon as the seedlings are of sufficient size, they should be moved into their own pot as the young plants will suffer from the competition from the parent plant. Many epiphytes will germinate using this method, so it may be worth a try with your pod.

The most reliable method is asymbiotic germination, or flasking. This method involves growing the seeds in a nutrient solution which provides the necessary nutrients for the growing plants. This avoids the necessity of the mycorrhizal fungus. The nutrient solution is mixed into agar, a gel, to provide mechanical support for the seedlings. Unfortunately, other organisms, like bacteria and fungus, also love growing in the nutrient solution and will overrun the seedling, just like weeds in our gardens, smothering and killing the seedlings. To prevent this, the agar media, flask and seed is sterilised ensuring that there is nothing in the flask to compete with the young seedlings.

Flasking is the method used commercially to grow orchid from seed. It has proven to be reliable, relatively cheap and simple. All seed can be reliably grown in flasks only requiring a change to the flask formulation for some difficult to grow species. There are many books describing flasking techniques in detail and many articles on the internet. Flasking can be done very simply at home using common household appliances and no special equipment. Media can be made using mostly household items from variety of formulas, or commercial mixtures are available at reasonable prices. Flasking is not out of reach of the home hobbyist with some of our own members producing many of their own flasks quiet successfully and reliably.

The question you now need to ask yourself is ‘Do I really want to grow from seed?’ You are looking at three to twelve months for the pod to ripen, one to four years of growing in the flask followed by one to ten years or more of growing the young orchid before you see your first flower if growing by flask. If growing symbiotically, you will still need 3 to 12 months for the pod to ripen, followed by two to 10 years of growing the orchid to achieve a flower. All up, you are looking at about 3 to 15 years, including years of watering, fertilising and repotting before you see a flower.


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Orchids in water culture

orchids in water culture

You can place your orchid in any container with enough room for roots to grow, but it is fun to use glass so you can observe the progress of the plant. The container doesn’t need to be very deep but high curved sides can help support the plant and keep it from flopping over. Many hydroponic orchid growers also use clay pebbles in the bottom to help support roots and rise the crown from the moisture to prevent rot. The medium might seem to be straightforward – water – but there are good and bad types. Some municipalities treat their water until it is laden with chemicals and can be quite toxic to plants. A better route is using rainwater, or distilled. It is important to use tepid water to avoid shocking the plant.

Some growers simply leave their orchid in the water all the time with weekly or biweekly water changes. Others swear by soaking the orchid for 2 days and then allowing it to dry for 5 days.

one could set up most orchids to grow in water as long as there was oxygen exchanged. For instance, if the water was re-circulated or had a splash fountain or a bubbler we believe we could grow totally in water– as long as we keep the plant above the water and the roots in the water.


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