Orchid Flower colour changes

Colour changes are usually attributable to temperature but can also be from changes in light as well. Temperature can affect on flower colour. Flowers that were red in previous years were faded in this year

Look at the leaves on your two photos.the leaves in the right photo appear to be a much deeper green than the left one. To me that would suggest the plant received a good deal less light last year, thus the darker more vibrant bloom colour. The more light this year probably washed out some of the colour.






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Ludisia discolor (jewel Orchids)

Ludisia discolor with out Flower and with flower

Ludisia is a genus of orchids that contains just one species, Ludisia discolor, commonly referred to as jewel orchid. They are terrestrial orchids. in their natural setting would be found growing on the forest floor. They are known for their foliage, which is often velvety deep maroon with red veins that run parallel to the centre of the leaf.it’s prized for its foliage rather than its flowers.

If you thought growing orchids was all about the flowers, you’ve never taken a look at the Ludisia, or jewel orchid. This unusual orchid variety breaks all the rules: it grows in the soil, not in the air; it likes shade instead of a sunny environment; and it gets its good looks from the velvety leaves it produces instead of its flowers.

It’s simple and easy to care for and does still produce lovely white little flowers to give it a little more interest than other houseplants which are only grown for their foliage. Flowers are white with twisting yellow columns. Individual flowers are small but grow in clusters on upright stalks. Flowers in cultivation last a month or more.

They need high humidity and warm temperatures with low to medium light, and they tolerate extremely low light levels.


Out in it’s natural habitat the Jewel Orchid is found growing down low, often in pretty shady places. For the best results try to replicate this in your home or office by avoiding placing it in direct sunlight. North facing rooms are perfect, but any other facing aspect is fine providing you can shield the leaves from any harsh sunlight that filters through during the day. Do not mistake this as a plant which likes darkness though, gloom needs to be avoided as much as direct sunlight.


Slightly damp conditions are what the Jewel Orchid wants for the majority of the time. It does not like to have bone dry or soaking wet soil, leave its roots sitting in water and it will rapidly die. If you are using a more porous potting mix you will need to water more often than if using standard potting soil.


Warm tropical temperatures above fifty degrees. Obviously, jewel orchids are not tolerant to frost.


A good orchid potting mix should be fine, ideally one that contains some organic material. Make sure the drainage is good to avoid rotting their roots.


These plants should regularly be fed with a balanced, diluted fertiliser like a 20-20-20. If their blooms are insufficient, up their feeding.


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Yamamoto Dendrobiums



Yamamoto Dendrobiums are selected nobile hybridized plants. In addition to beauty and quality, YYamamoto Dendrobiums are famous worldwide for long lasting flowers and plants which are vigorous and easy to grow.


Yamamoto Dendrobiums was established by Jiro Yamamoto in Japan 1952. They  created a lot of excellent Dendrobiums, which has received the high appraisal in many famous orchid shows for its superior quality.Currently, about 4000 different kinds of Dendrobiums have been hybridized by Jiro Yamamoto. Yamamoto Dendrobiums’ has become synonymous with a name to one specific group of orchids.



General Care

Dendrobium nobile and its relatives are Asiatic orchids native to Burma, India, Thailand, and Indochina, where they grow on trees from the lowlands all the way up to the cool highlands of the Himalayas at elevations of 4,000 feet. The species are extremely hardy, surviving temperatures ranging from warm to downright hot as well as enduring freezing temperatures.

please check more on following link





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Terrariums are decorative gardens that are grown in saleable glass containers that provide just enough of an opening for the gardener to access their plants. Terrariums can also be grown in open glass containers.

In many ways, a terrarium is like an aquarium, except instead of fish, they are used to house and grow plants.

Because the plants are grown in glass containers, terrariums are often considered self-sustaining small gardens.They are a small, enclosed environment for certain plants. Think of it as a mini-greenhouse. The containers for terrarium gardens are typically transparent, such as glass or plastic.

There are mainly two types of terrariums, closed and open. closed terrariums have a removable lid while the open terrarium does not.


Closed Terrariums

They are indoor gardens in a sealed container. The plants and the soil in the terrarium release water vapour essentially recycling water. The vapour is then collected onto the walls of the vessel and trickles down to the soil. Terrariums are self-nourishing, which is why they require little maintenance, if sealed. Tropical plant varieties, such as mosses, orchids, ferns, and air plants, are generally kept within closed terrarium due to the conditions being similar to the humid and sheltered environment of the tropics.


Ferns terrariums


Ferns- Lots of ferns thrive in moist and humid terrariums, which means they should be in a closed terrarium. With some ferns, they need to be trimmed because of how high that can grow. So, if you have a small terrarium, make sure to get a low growing fern.


Moss Terrariums



Open  terrarium

Open terrarium are better suited to dry plants such as succulents. Not all plants require or are suited to the moist environment of closed terrarium. For plants adapted to dry climates, open, unsealed terrariums are used to keep the air in the terrarium free from excess moisture. Open terrarium also work well for plants that require more direct sunlight, as closed terrarium can trap too much heat potentially killing any plants inside.


Cacti terrariums

cact-cacti Terrarium
Cacti terrariums love dry surroundings, so it’s best that this type of terrarium have a constant air flow.

Carnivorous terrariums


Carnivorous terrariums prefer bright light and easy access to food so its best to have an open mouth glass container. Most carnivorous plants need moisture and humidity. If the plants are well fed and taken care of they could bloom.



Most types of succulents like to grow in a dry habitat, so that the soil doesn’t get to moist. Also, succulents shouldn’t be watered a lot, only once every week or two. Succulents and cacti would pair together well, since they have the same needs. There are many more different plants that can be used in a terrarium. The tricky part to building a good terrarium, is to find plants that have the same survival needs. It may take a lot of plants to die before getting the combinations right.

Orchid Terrariums


There are many species of orchid plants that can be used in an your terrarium. it can be either open or closed. Some of the best and most preferable types of orchid plants for terrariums are

Phalaenopsis or moth orchids
Vanda orchid or Singapore orchid
Slipper orchids
Cattelya orchids


Want Terrarium vases ?



  1. How do you make terrariums?

1.Buy a special terrarium case to hold your garden or make one of your own out of a soda bottle, fish tank, fish bowl or vase.

2.Then fill the bottom of your container with half the amount of the layer of soil you plan to use. You may lay rocks as your first layer in the terrarium, but this up to personal preference.

3.Add any large rocks or pieces of driftwood that you would like to include in your garden.

4.In the soil, make a hole big enough for the roots of the plants to rest.

5.Remove the plant from its container you may need to lightly massage the roots to loosen the roots from the soil.

6.Position the plants in the thin layer of soil and add the second layer of soil around the plants. Press somewhat firmly the new soil level should be about the same level as the soil of the plants original root ball.

7.Get creative and mix up the plants, colours and sizes.

2)  What plants work best in terrariums?

Typically, foliage plants and plants that grow slowly work best avoid fast growing plants. example for slow growth are

1.Ferns Maidenhair, Birds nest, Button ferns

2.Carnivorous plants, Venus fly traps, Pitcher plants, Sundew plants

3.Dwarf palms

4.Airplants, Tillandsia

5.Succulents- cacti, Hawthornia, Echeveria, Crassula, etc.


Ferns, carnivorous plants and air plants are quite difficult to grow without terrariums. So, if you would like these plants in your home, we recommend purchasing or making a terrarium.

3) What are the benefits of terrariums?

1.They help grow plants that would be difficult to grow in dry air.

2.They provide a confined space for a garden and mini garden.

4.You can use artificial light, such as LED or fluorescent very efficiently.

5.Terrariums don’t need to be watered often.

4) How do you care for terrariums?

Terrariums are low maintenance for the most part but we do have some suggestions to keep your terrarium long lasting and healthy.

1.If you choose to grow ferns, trim leaves to prevent them from overgrowing.

2.Make sure to remove yellow and brown leaves from any plants in your terrarium. This is typically a sign of disease or pest.

3.If you have an open terrarium, monitor for pests such as gnats or mealy bugs.

4.If you have closed terrarium, you may want to remove the lid every now and then to let in some fresh air.

5) How to water Terrariums ?

The types of plants found in terrariums tend to be hardy plants that don’t require frequent watering. Also, the greenhouse-like structure of terrariums recycles water instead of evaporating water into the ambient air with normal indoor plants.If closed, you might be watering them (on average) once a month but this will vary depending on a variety of factors. Open terrariums benefit from being watered every 3-6 weeks. Rather than watering on a schedule, check the soil to see if and how much water your plants need.

6) What type of soil works best in terrariums?

Coco coir, peat moss or houseplant soil works with most plants, besides succulents which prefer a well-drained inorganic medium. Some people choose to make their own soil but if you’re short on time, garden store houseplant soil works just fine. For succulents, you’ll need soil with a sand or gravel mixture.

7) Do terrariums make good gifts?

Of course they do! Not only are they low maintenance, but they are a beautiful addition to any home, apartment or business.

8) Do terrariums smell?

In general, no. They actually smell quite nice with an earthy odour. But, if yours happens to smell rotten, its most likely a sign of root rotting or over watering

9) Can you plant trees in terrariums?

Bonsai trees or small junipers might work but that’s about it.

10) What are hanging terrariums?

They are simply terrariums that hang from a structure, like a wall sconce.

11) What is the difference between indoor plants and terrariums?

Indoor plants (houseplants) are typically used in terrariums. However, most plants chosen for terrariums are slow-growing and many are plants that are otherwise difficult to grow without high humidity or high light.

12) Do terrariums need air?

Yes, but plants in airtight, or closed terrariums, recycle air. During the day, sunlight promotes the growth of sugars during the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide into oxygen, releasing it into the terrarium.

In a closed terrarium, you may want to remove the lid to let fresh air into the terrarium, but a closed terrarium will not damage the plants.

13) Which kind of containers work best for terrariums?

Glass candy jars, fish tanks with light bulbs, goldfish bowls and coffee pots all work very well as terrarium containers. You might even choose to use a wine bottle, but planting would be difficult due to the narrow opening.

14) Do terrariums need sunlight?

Most need either direct or indirect light but artificial light may also be used. There are three types of light you can provide for your terrarium.

1.Direct sunlight

2.Indirect sunlight

3.Artificial light

It is recommended to use fluorescent or LED bulbs. Avoid incandescent bulbs.

If you choose to place your terrarium in direct sunlight, you may want to remove the lid on a closed terrarium because it might get too hot for the plants with the lid on.

15) Do terrariums need to be airtight?

Terrariums are fine if they are airtight, but we suggest removing the lid periodically (about once a week or even daily) to allow fresh air into your garden.

16) Can terrariums be made of plastic?

Sure! Plastic containers, like those made out of acrylic, work just fine. You can also buy anti-fog plastic containers, which prevent condensation build-up and allows better visibility these are generally more expensive.

17) How long do terrariums last?

Terrariums can last anywhere from several years or even longer, if well maintained.

18) Do terrariums need air?

Yes, but plants in airtight, or closed terrariums, recycle air. During the day, sunlight promotes the growth of sugars during the process of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis converts carbon dioxide into oxygen, releasing it into the terrarium.

In a closed terrarium, you may want to remove the lid to let fresh air into the terrarium, but a closed terrarium will not damage the plants.

19) What supplies do you need to make a terrarium?

You all need the following:

1.A glass or plastic container

2.Rocks, if you choose

3.Moss, if you choose

4.Soil (growing medium)

5.Plants that won’t overgrow (generally miniature or dwarf plants)

6.Spoon for placing soil

7.Long tweezers for putting materials into vessel



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Orchids from seeds?!

orchid seeds


Most plant seeds (except orchids) are relatively large and contain a large store of nutrition to sustain the young plant before leaves and roots develop enough to continue sustaining the growing plant. With this type of seed, you just pop the seed in soil, water, and watch the seedling grow. Most garden plant seeds are of this type. Examples are beans, peas, corn, tomatoes and lettuce, all the seeds you see at your local nursery or produce store. Orchid seed, in comparison, is tiny, like dust. It contains virtually no nutrition to grow the new plant, so orchid seed relies on a mycorrhizal fungus to provide the nutrition required to grow. Until the young orchid grows leaves and roots large enough to support the orchid, the fungus must provide all the nutrition for the growing plant. Without this fungus, there is no possibility of the seed developing.


Now, back to how to grow your seed. If you just put your seed in a pot and water, it will not grow without the required fungus. Early orchid growers had little success growing orchids from seed due to this problem. They found to have any chance of success, the seed should be sown on the mother pot around the roots of the parent plant. Here, the potting media will be moist due to normal watering of the pot and will also contain suitable mycorrhizal fungus from the parent plant. Many species will grow using this method. Phaius, for example, grow extremely well using this method. A soon as the seedlings are of sufficient size, they should be moved into their own pot as the young plants will suffer from the competition from the parent plant. Many epiphytes will germinate using this method, so it may be worth a try with your pod.


The most reliable method is asymbiotic germination, or flasking. This method involves growing the seeds in a nutrient solution which provides the necessary nutrients for the growing plants. This avoids the necessity of the mycorrhizal fungus. The nutrient solution is mixed into agar, a gel, to provide mechanical support for the seedlings. Unfortunately, other organisms, like bacteria and fungus, also love growing in the nutrient solution and will overrun the seedling, just like weeds in our gardens, smothering and killing the seedlings. To prevent this, the agar media, flask and seed is sterilised ensuring that there is nothing in the flask to compete with the young seedlings.

Flasking is the method used commercially to grow orchid from seed. It has proven to be reliable, relatively cheap and simple. All seed can be reliably grown in flasks only requiring a change to the flask formulation for some difficult to grow species. There are many books describing flasking techniques in detail and many articles on the internet. Flasking can be done very simply at home using common household appliances and no special equipment. Media can be made using mostly household items from variety of formulas, or commercial mixtures are available at reasonable prices. Flasking is not out of reach of the home hobbyist with some of our own members producing many of their own flasks quiet successfully and reliably.


The question you now need to ask yourself is ‘Do I really want to grow from seed?’ You are looking at three to twelve months for the pod to ripen, one to four years of growing in the flask followed by one to ten years or more of growing the young orchid before you see your first flower if growing by flask. If growing symbiotically, you will still need 3 to 12 months for the pod to ripen, followed by two to 10 years of growing the orchid to achieve a flower. All up, you are looking at about 3 to 15 years, including years of watering, fertilising and repotting before you see a flower.








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Orchids in water culture

orchids in water culture

You can place your orchid in any container with enough room for roots to grow, but it is fun to use glass so you can observe the progress of the plant. The container doesn’t need to be very deep but high curved sides can help support the plant and keep it from flopping over. Many hydroponic orchid growers also use clay pebbles in the bottom to help support roots and rise the crown from the moisture to prevent rot. The medium might seem to be straightforward – water – but there are good and bad types. Some municipalities treat their water until it is laden with chemicals and can be quite toxic to plants. A better route is using rainwater, or distilled. It is important to use tepid water to avoid shocking the plant.

Some growers simply leave their orchid in the water all the time with weekly or biweekly water changes. Others swear by soaking the orchid for 2 days and then allowing it to dry for 5 days.

one could set up most orchids to grow in water as long as there was oxygen exchanged. For instance, if the water was re-circulated or had a splash fountain or a bubbler we believe we could grow totally in water– as long as we keep the plant above the water and the roots in the water.





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Dendrobium species care – Different care for different Dendrobium species



Dendrobium is Asian and Australian genus, and also dwells on many Pacific Ocean islands. Dendrobium orchids grow naturally in diverse ecosystems – from warm rainforests to cold Himalayan mounts and dry Australian deserts. Given the fact that they live in so different biomes, Dendrobium is one of the most diverse orchid genera and because of it they are divided into different groups, according to their specific demands. They are divided to cold, intermediate and warm-growing, and they can also be divided to ones who need a cold dry rest period, and ones who do not need it.

The orchids that vendors sold are actually complex hybrids and some of this complex hybrids do not actually require such cold and dry dormancy, as they have some warm-group Dendrobiums in their pedigree. hybrids are much more easy to grow than species Dendrobiums, and within species, the warm group is easiest to grow.

Dendrobium nobile, Dendrobium phalaenopsis, and Dendrobium bigibbum are three popularly grown Dendrobium species which have been used extensively in hybridizing. These species and their hybrids are often added to collections without the grower being aware of their very different cultural requirements. We hope that a knowledge of the climatic conditions in the three habitats will help growers decide whether they can provide the conditions needed to grow and bloom these species and many of their hybrids.

A few general facts about the large and varied genus Dendrobium might help growers understand the difficulty in trying to apply generalizations to so many species. D. nobile was once used extensively in hybridizing with 77 hybrids registered in which it was a parent. The most commonly used parents in recent registrations, however, have been the Australian species D. phalaenopsis and the closely related D. bigibbum.

Cold Dendrobium species

Cold-growing species are Dendrobium wattii, Dendrobium wangliangii, Dendrobium vonroemeri, Dendrobium vexillarius, Dendrobium vannouhuysii, Dendrobium sutepense, Dendrobium sulphureum, Dendrobium subclausum, Dendrobium stellar, Dendrobium sinominutiflorum, Dendrobium sculptum, Dendrobium rupestre, Dendrobium putnamii, Dendrobium piranha, Dendrobium otaguroanum, Dendrobium cuthbertsonii. They cannot tolerate warmth for long periods of time and need to grow at cool all year round, as they are mostly mountain miniature to medium-sized species. The best way to grow them is mounting on slabs because at cool conditions roots are very prone to rotting. Mounting is the best way to keep roots of these Dendrobiums healthy.

Intermediate-temperature species

The second group is intermediate growing Dendrobiums, such as Dendrobium kingianum, Dendrobium nobile, Dendrobium crassifolium, Dendrobium crassicaule, Dendrobium amethystoglossum, Dendrobium gnomus, Dendrobium harveyanum, Dendrobium loddigesii, Dendrobium longicornu. All of them prefer intermediate temperature, half to full sun and moderate watering. Some representatives of this group need cold and dry dormancy to develop flower buds. For instance, popular Dendrobium nobile, Dendrobium kingianum and Dendrobium loddigesii produce keikis instead of flowers if not provided with cool temperatures , but they prefer intermediate temperatures when they are vegetating.

Warm Dendrobiums species

The third group is so called warm Dendrobiums – well known Dendrobium phalaenopsis, Dendrobium speciosum, Dendrobium spectabile, Dendrobium tangerinum, Dendrobium taurinum, Dendrobium transparens, Dendrobium truncatum, Dendrobium unicum need warm grow conditions. Some of them such as Dendrobium phalaenopsis and spectacular Dendrobium spectabile need year-round hot to warm temperatures, but deciduous Dendrobium unicum needs cold and dry rest in winter but warm temperatures at summer. Most warm species normally grow in pots, but Dendrobium unicum suits better to be mounted on a slab.





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Acriopsis (chandelier orchids)

Acriopsis liliifolia

Acriopsis liliifolia var liliifolia


The genus consists of 9 recognized species. The name ‘Acriopsis’ is derived because it resembles the shape of a locust.

They grow mainly in low, humid rainforests, sometimes ascending to medium altitudes. Their roots have specialised roots which grow from them up through the air and make branches which feed on litter and other debris.

Light Preference :
Semi-Shade (It is best grown under 70% light. )

Moderate shade and humidity as well as hot to warm conditions are required with a dry period when not growing and then ample water while in growth to have this epiphytic orchid bloom in the spring and summer on a basal


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Dyakia hendersoniana sp

Dyakia hendersoniana

A genus of orchids. It contains only one species, Dyakia hendersoniana

Dyakia is a genus of orchids. It contains only one species, Dyakia hendersoniana, endemic to the Island of Borneo.


Light:- This plant prefers low to medium light. This plant also does well under artificial lights. Grow from 12 to 18 inches from fluorescent tubes.

Humidity:- 50% or higher is ideal. When growing on a slab, keep the humidity as high as possible.

Water:- This plant should be misted or watered every morning when growing on a slab. When growing in a pot, water as the mix approaches dryness

This plant flowers in the spring to summer months. Each flower stem produces about 15 to 30 miniature salmon pink flowers.


Repot this plant once a year in a net or clay pot using New Zealand sphagnum moss. These can be slab mounted as well.When growing on a slab, repotting is not necessary unless the slab develops a salt like coating on it.


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Trichoglottis (Trgl)

Trichoglottis Brachiata Sp.

Trichoglottis Brachiata

In this  genus contains about 60 species found mostly in Southeast Asia (Indochina, Indonesia, Philippines, etc.) with a few species in China, the Indian Subcontinent, and various islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
All the Trichoglottis grow well either in a bushhouse or outdoors, with broken sunlight and protection from direct hot sunlight. The climbers need something to clamber up, and can be kept manageable by cutting tops and replanting at the base of the support for a specimen clump.

Temperature :-   Warm to intermediate.
Light:- no direct sun.
Humidity:- even moisture and high humidity. Constant air movement is also important.

Trichovanda Thai Velvet 'Meechai'

Trichovanda Thai Velvet ‘Meechai’

                                          (cross of Trichoglottis brachiata x Vanda Kinzweiler)



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